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What are the main differences between gestalt therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy?

What are the main differences between gestalt therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy?



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Can someone explain the main differences in an easy to understand way between gestalt therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy?

Which is better suitable in which situations? I read some articles online but I still don't have a clear picture.


In a very elementary and basic way Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on mental schemas and behavior modification techniques.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schema_(psychology)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_behavioral_therapy

In the formulation of the case the professional analyzes how attitudes, behavioral dispositions, behavior and the interpretations of all this are related to the different problems and disorders.

You can find numerous information about this so I will try some differentiations of Gestalt therapy.

I would emphasize first that Gestalt therapy maintains a greater link with therapies close to emotions or where a therapy must have special consideration of emotional processes, this feature is easy to see at first, and in his theory some develop principles to analyze emotions, his theory considers what, how, why of those emotions, in this way become important goals and objectives that represent important factors of emotional and behavioral change.

Some features commented very briefly:

  • Awareness and responsibility (initially could be considered similar to locus of control): The immediate holistic experience is considered, this means that are considered perceptions, sensations, feelings, thoughts and wishes or intentions, it is about going a little further beyond simple words or superficial conversations, it is about what the person thinks and does but also about what they feel, how they perceive certain situations or how they interpret them.

  • Concept of self (this theory of Rogers is well known: self-worth, self-image, ideal-self) considering a holistic perspective or integrated cognitive but emotional, motivational and relational or social system, which perceives, evaluates, experiences and that is related to behavioral tendencies and manifest behavior about the environment. For example, not only what is done but what is wanted to do or intentions or make small changes to the behavior are considered.

  • The attention to the present moment is prioritized, the professional and the client during the sessions work in a direct way with the problems, not with the words about the problem, that is, in therapy they working all the aspects involved in the problem while the problem manifests.

  • A therapeutic relationship style close to Client-Centered Therapy, for example working from a style where the professional only directs to the client in front of a style of authoritarian expert.

Finally, it is very important to highlight the evidences of Gestalt Therapy that are sometimes ignored as in the case of humanistic-experiential therapies and there is also an important publication bias, one of the most important documents from which follow the evidences of this therapy is this chapter released or freely accessible:

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/110659465.pdf

Elliott, R., Watson, J., Greenberg, L.S., Timulak, L., & Freire, E. (2013). Research on humanistic-experiential psychotherapies. In M.J. Lambert, Bergin & Garfield's Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 495-538). New York: Wiley.


Counselling Theories Compared and Contrasted

In this section, we are going to look at three different forms of counselling, how they compare and how they differ.

The first thing to consider is that all counsellors, no matter which model of counselling they practise, should offer the core conditions discussed in the section on person-centred therapy.

The main difference is that transactional analysis and REBT counsellors use additional techniques, whereas person-centred therapists believe that the core conditions are not only necessary but also sufficient for the client to heal themselves.

Free Handout Download

Compare and Contrast Theories

In the grid below, you will see how the therapies compare

Person-centred Transactional analysis REBT
Carl Rogers Eric Berne Albert Ellis
Humanistic school Psychodynamic school Behavioural school
Here and now Presenting past How we think
Counsellor believes the client is an expert on themselves and helps the client gain self-acceptance Counsellor is an ‘expert’ and helps the client to realise how childhood experiences affect their life today Counsellor is an ‘expert’ and helps the client to think more rationally about life
Believes that humans can self-heal if the core conditions are in place The basis of the model is pa rent, adult and child ego states The basis of the model is a ct ion , belief and consequence
Core conditions are
necessary and sufficient
Core conditions are desirable Core conditions are desirable
The relationship between the client and the counsellor is the most important aspect of the therapy succeeding Counsellor teaches techniques, sets homework and uses worksheets to aid the therapy Counsellor teaches techniques, sets homework and uses worksheets to aid the therapy

In Conclusion

There are many ways to work with a therapist. You can find practitioners of Gestalt Therapy and other modalities on BetterHelp. If you're feeling depressed, anxious, or generally need support, talking to a therapist can help you get things back on track. You can move forward to a truly fulfilling life-all you need are the right tools. Take the first step.

Frequently Asked Questions About Gestalt Therapy Techniques

What is the main goal of Gestalt Therapy?

The goal of Gestalt Therapy is to overcome how you feel about the past and future. You want to focus on the present and experience the current moment. Additionally, you will want to focus on your current feelings about the past and take responsibility for them. You should be able to take how you are feeling now and manage those feelings. Furthermore, the goal is to alleviate any unresolved emotions, heartache, anxiety, or stress about a past situation.

How does Gestalt Therapy work?

Gestalt Therapy is a client-centered form of therapy in which the client focuses on the now. The therapist will direct you to think about your current feelings, rather than the past. This is to refocus the mind to be on the present moment, so you don&rsquot harp on past incidents. These incidents are usually what triggers stress, anxiety, or depression. So, focusing on the present can be seen as very effective when trying to heal mentally.

What are the key concepts of Gestalt Therapy?

According to the Gestalt Theory website, the key concepts are phenomenological exploration (awareness and insight), field theory perspective (the event needed to happen to affect the future), existentialism (acknowledgment of how the world works), and dialogue (perspectives of relationships). Overall, the main gist of Gestalt Therapy is the focus on gaining a deeper understanding of situations. It is to gain insight into why things happen and how to approach the experiences.

When would you use Gestalt Therapy?

You can use Gestalt Therapy for a wide variety of reasons. Any uncomfortable feelings toward the past or present is a great reason to see a Gestalt therapist. Also, if you just want to feel more whole or aware, it is an excellent form of client-centered therapy.

Who is Gestalt Therapy effective for?

If you have an anxiety disorder, depression, or relationship issues, Gestalt Therapy can be very effective. Additionally, it is effective for resolving stress, headaches, and even trauma. No matter what you are dealing with, you may benefit from attending Gestalt Therapy.

What techniques do Gestalt therapists use?

Some Gestalt Therapy techniques are role-playing in which your therapist will help you reenact scenes or past experiences. Then, you will focus on how you are feeling in the present. Another, which is likely the most commonly known, is the empty chair technique. This is where the client speaks to the person they have a grievance toward. Third, is the exaggeration technique, which is where the therapist encourages their client to exaggerate their physical behaviors such as playing with their hair or tapping their fingers. This is to increase the self-awareness of the client.

What are Gestalt exercises?

Some Gestalt Therapy exercises are self-awareness methods, so you get more in touch with your emotions. When you are more aware of your reactions and coping mechanisms, you are likely to heal more effectively. Another exercise is the empty chair technique, also known as the void chair. Additionally, many therapists prefer to do role-play with their clients, so the client can heal from the previous situation. This is to encourage healing and process their emotions.

What is the Gestalt empty chair technique?

The empty chair technique, as mentioned above, is a technique in which you have a conversation with an empty chair. You pretend to converse with someone who has caused you stress, pain, or anxiety. This is to air out how you feel toward them, all without doing so in reality. This is a very effective method as you are likely to feel better once you explain your pain and emotions.

What is Gestalt explained simply?

Gestalt Therapy, explained simply, is a therapy method in which a therapist leads a client to feel more whole and complete. It is to bring all of the pieces together from pain, the past situation, the future, and the emotions felt by the client. The goal is for the client to feel whole in the present moment, rather than focusing on the past or future.

What is the basic goal of Gestalt Therapy?

The basic goal of Gestalt Therapy is to heal from the past of anxiety about the future. When you wrap up Gestalt Therapy, you should feel comfortable living in the present and feel a wholeness about your life. If you do struggle with anxiety or depression, the hope is that you can heal from those feelings and are able to cope with the negative emotions.

What is the difference between Gestalt Therapy and Existential Therapy?

Gestalt Therapy is a type of Existential Therapy, but there are some differences. GT typically focuses on feeling whole, while existential therapy focuses on being authentic. Existential therapists tend to believe the meaning of life is coming to terms that it will end, so you must live in the present. Gestalt therapy focuses on being in the present and not focusing on the past or future.

Is Gestalt Therapy evidence based?

Gestalt Therapy is evidence based. There have been hundreds of studies over Gestalt Therapy, and it is an effective form of therapy. However, for some mental health conditions, such as generalized anxiety, other therapy methods are proven to be more effective, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To see if you would have success with GT, see a counselor, and discuss your symptoms. They will be able to tell you if GT will be effective for your specific situation.


What are the main differences between gestalt therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy? - Psychology

Familiarity with cognitive behaviour therapy, particularly the social cognitive approach, is widely assumed here. My paper is a part of a more comprehensive treatment of this theme in which my sister, Irene PAULS, wrote large parts of the section dealing with cognitive behaviour therapy.

It is undeniable that even today there are behaviour therapists who pay homage to the atomistic and associational view which Gestalt theorists have opposed since the beginning of the century. But the social-cognitive approach, as it is known today, justifies the following question: Is there anything left for Gestalt Theory to criticize? Does the cognitive behaviour therapy, particularly the social cognitive approach as represented by MISCHEL, BANDURA and MAHONEY, still have anything in common with WATSONs behaviour therapy? I think at most only a little. It has become possible to speak of awareness, insight, setting aims, self-observation, anticipation, self-direction and self-control. Many of these concepts are in harmony with LEWINs concept of life-space. Anyway, the concept of conditioning has been radically demystified by the realization that conditioning does not happen automatically but is cognitively mediated (BANDURA, 1974). Analogously to the Gestalt laws (proximity, closure, etc.), "conditioning" merely describes certain possible connections (e.g. stimulus-response associations) which may be realized by an individual, depending on his/her subjective phenomenal world (life space). Rather, self-determination is regarded a basic condition of human existence which cannot be denied. In general, this can be agreed upon, the problems concerning self-determination can be simply illustrated by the following example: If a vicar speaks of politics in his church then he's being political - if he does not bring in politics then he's still being political.

WERTHEIMER, as a founder of Gestalt theory, would probably not feel misunderstood by BANDURAs statement: "The task ahead is to explore in greater detail how self-knowledge of efficacy is acquired and how it in turn shapes the course of personal development" (BANDURA, 1980, p. 171). BANDURAs and WERTHEIMERs ideas and concepts concerning self-determination must be carefully compared in order to be able to decide if they have a relatively similar understanding of this subject, thus enabling them to pursue similar lines of research.

WERTHEIMER analyses the problem of self-determinations particularly impressively in an essay on the subject of "freedom" published in 1940 (in ANSHEN, 1940, new published in HENLE, 1961). In "A Story of Three Days" he describes a "good man's" attempt to find out what freedom means. The "good man" is disappointed in his hope of finding a solution to his problem through conversations with a sociologist and a philosopher and by reading the works of a famous author and a psychoanalyst. Each time he ends up feeling that he has, in fact, learnt nothing about freedom in spite of the famous people's clever ideas. And then - alone with himself again - he bursts out. "First let me realize," he said passionately, "what I have seen with my own eyes. Have I not seen in my experience strong and indeed very characteristic cases of men, of children, who were free, who were unfree? What were the essentials? My experiences, of course, are no sufficient basis for statistical generalizations nor do I wish to make any now. What I want is to grasp, to realize, what I have seen." He recalled a number of cases. Then he said, "Sometimes one sees a man, and by the way he goes through life, by his attitudes, by his behaviour in dealing with life situations one feels: this is a free man, he lives in an atmosphere of freedom. And so in observing children. On the other hand, one sees men or children, and feels strongly that in their behaviour there is no freedom - there is no air of freedom in their world."

"It is," he thought, "not easy to put into words what one faces so vividly in these extreme cases. Let me think - what were these cases concretely? The free man," he recalled, "- frank, open-minded, sincerely going ahead, facing the situation freely, looking for the right thing to do and so finding where to go. The opposite - he first thought of children he had often seen - inhibited, pushed, or driven, acting by command or intimidation, one-track minded. "

The man concludes that everything that had been written and said to him concerning freedom by these clever people was a product of piecemeal thinking which sees it
". in terms of a choice, of a wish, of an `instinctual impulsion , etc. One's whole attitude towards the world, towards the other fellow, towards one's group, towards one' s own momentary wishes was involved." . "He recalled discussions. What differences! In the way a man faces a counterargument, faces new facts! There are men who face them freely, open-mindedly, frankly, dealing honestly with them, taking them duly into account. 0thers are noat able to do so at all: they somehow remain blind, rigid they stick to their axioms, unable to face the arguments, the facts or, if they do, it is to avoid or to get rid of them by some means - they are incapable of looking then squarely in the face. They cannot deal with them as free men they are narrowed and enslaved by their position" (in HENLE, pp. 59-61).

In his work "Some Problems in the Theory of Ethics" (1935, new published in HENLE, 1961) WERTHEIMER points out that logical operations can be illogical in the context of a situation, simply because they do not fulfil the demands of the situation. In the previously described example, it could be a case of a fascinating firework display of logical and knowledgeable trains of thought which, as a whole, completely miss the point. The man sums it up thus:
"Freedom is (1) a condition in the social field, and a terribly important one. In viewing such, a condition we should not view it as a thing in itself and so define it, but we should view it in its role, in its function, in its interactions, in its consequences for men and for society. Freedom is logically (2) not just a condition what matters is how men are and how they develop, how society is and how it develops. Freedom is a Gestalt quality of attitude, of behaviour, of a man's thinking, of his actions. (Think of the difference between the free and the unfree, the description of which was of course only a first approach to viewing the essentials.) Now logically freedom as condition (1) and freedom as Gestalt quality (2) must be viewed not as two pieces, but in their intimate interrelation. Freedom as condition is only one factor, but a very important one with regard to freedom as character quality" (in HENLE, p. 64).

It does not seem to be a coincidence that none of the words WERTHEIMER uses to describe freedom begin with "self". He would probably see the distinction between external determination and self-determination as an expression of a piecemeal view. He would, on the other hand, agree with the view that the free man is able to determine himself, because the feeling of freedom allows him to confront situations without reservations. I would really like to give up the concept of self-determination in Gestalt-theoretical psychotherapy and, together with METZGER (1962), and also based on WERTHEIMERs point of view, see the main concern of Gestalt-theoretical pedagogy and also of Gestalt-theoretical psychotherapy in the promotion of "creative freedom". We can only find out what promotes it, we can promote it, but we cannot find out how to create it - this character quality of "creative freedom" out of which the appropriate self-determination grows. To what extent could a person who is unfree in the sense of character quality benefit from his awareness of, his insight into and his anticipation of contingencies? Of what use is his logic? lt would be the logic of an unfree person, the activity of an unfree person. WERTHEIMER speaks of the atmosphere of freedom emitted by a free person which can be felt, the air of freedom which the unfree person lacks. Only the encounter with an air or an atmosphere of freedom can liberate him. To be brought into a social field where the air of freedom can be breathed in - as the "good man" in WERTHEIMERs story has already experienced - can seem to someone as though he had suddenly recovered after a long illness. The language of WERTHEIMERs "A Story of Three Days" is full of feeling, contains many images and is therefore very different from most texts of cognitive behaviour therapy it seems to me that this is already an indication of a difference between the Gestalt-theoretical approach to self-determination and that of cognitive behaviour therapy. Let us assure ourselves again. In cognitive behaviour therapy we are concerned with knowledge of, awareness of and information about behaviour contingencies. Logical operations constitute self-determination. Clarification is what counts. What has been logically clarified is the basis of further clarification by means of logical operations. I think the tradition of an atomistic "summative" approach can be felt here. lt is, of course, pointed out that emotions also determine thinking, but it seems to me that the step of seeing a person's thinking, feeling, actions, perceptions, attitudes and logical operations as an indivisible unity, as a holistic phenomenon, as a Gestalt quality has not quite been taken. Where lies the logic when, on the one hand, cognition is seen as being influenced by emotions and, on the other hand such "emotional cognitions" are reduced to logical operations as a kind of intellectual strategy? If, (as WERTHEIMER let his "good man" express pointedly), empirical inquiry into the conditions for the development of freedom is only useful when conducted by a free man, then the rationalistic reduction of self-determination to a logical handling of knowledge of contingencies is unsuitable for this task, because this one-sidedness avoids the confrontation with the Gestalt character of the person as a whole. Furthermore, if in cognitive behaviour therapy the conscious mind, defined as knowledge of interconnections which can be verbally recalled, is the foundation of self-determination, then such a rationalistic view ignores the unconscious in consciousness. In this concept of self-determination man is reduced to a "logical doer". For Gestalt theory, however, the unconscious in consciousness is no less a source of self-determination than the conscious mind, the inaccessible no less than the accessible, the ground no less than the distinguishable figure, the functionally bound (which evades attention because only a particular problem or particular aim is centered on) no less than that which is seen, the visual constant (which I would not think of questioning) no less than the visual variable in whose transformation I anticipate success (RAUSCH, 1949 HOETH, 1979), and finally, to sum up, the properties of individual parts (perhaps also conditions for a person's freedom), their relationship to each other, their role in the whole no less than the Gestalt quality of the whole (perhaps also the free personality). All pieces of information which cannot be reproduced verbally are not "inevitably lost" as maintained by the client-centered therapist WEXLER in his "Cognitive Theory of Experiencing, Self-actualisation and Therapeutic Process" (1974).

But can Gestalt theory offer a way to make the inaccessible accessible? Surely it is only meaningful then to insist on its existence? A holistic view, one could say, is fine, but is it not just vague rubbish if this leads to the claim that the inaccessible is the source of free behaviour, the source of self-determination? I would like to answer this. The impatience expressed by a "doer mentality" such as WATSONs shows its persistency perhaps not only in the fact that Gestalt theorists are asked the wrong questions but also that Gestalt theorists may give the wrong answers. That which is inaccessible cannot be made accessible, it can however become accessible. The "good man" in WERTHEIMERs story named crucial conditions which enable this to take place: a free, open and unprejudiced acceptance of that which is. WERTHEIMER speaks of the "demands of the situation" and maintains that intelligence is the capacity to let oneself be led by the situation (1945, in German 1964). For WERTHEIMER truly creative achievements are unthinkable without this process of accepting and letting oneself be led by one's situation. This characterizes the scientific research method of Gestalt Theory no less than it does Gestalt-theoretical Psychotherapy. METZGER (1975) describes the method of inquiry used in Gestalt theory as "movement from top to bottom". In order for logical operations to take place within a meaningful framework, the researcher is not afraid to ascribe scientific worth to his first intuitions as he approaches the object of his inquiry. To go into these intuitions - however unclear their appearances in the object of inquiry - increases the chance that the matter at hand, the situation itself takes charge rather than preconceived assumptions. In research as in therapy, logical operations are only used with a specific purpose when the Gestalt relationship between researcher and the aim of his research, between therapist and client, between client and his aim has been clarified adequately. There is no guarantee that this is practised. What can be done is to set up adequate conditions (such as "the path from top to bottom") which increase the chances that old rigidities are not strengthened by illogical logic. In therapy, for example, we are concerned with allowing confusion and the lack of clarity. It is not a matter of supporting confusion and the lack of clarity as aims, but merely of allowing them. Acceptance of that which is, allowing the confusion which is present, is necessary in order to develop a clarity which is not entirely primitive ("primitiv-prägnant"). Creative freedom (cp. Metzger, 1962), creative self-determination takes shape in letting go of that which has been done long ago, that which is known or claimed to exist. Perls is, at least in this point, a real Gestalt theorist, to him awareness means directing his attention fully to the present experience, listening inside himself, remaining in the flow of consciousness, not investing activity in logical inquiries too early, but simply being there, following whatever happens, whatever pushes itself into the foreground in this way, perhaps for the first time in ages becoming aware of elemental needs for peace, security, affection and pleasure, for making an effort and achieving something. Acceptance of the present situation (of which Lewin says that it is the only place where change can take place) is something, I am convinced, hardly anyone masters. lt is much more usual to juggle hypotheses, assumptions and suspicions about the past and future, to worship second-hand ideas, and thus to neglect our connection with the present most crassly. Experiences in Gestalt-theoretical Psychotherapy (which can include the use of Gestalt therapy exercises and procedures as well as those from psychodrama, client centered therapy and even behaviour therapy), has, in my opinion, demonstrated adequately that by creating adequate conditions which encourage a person to be concerned with himself, his current situation and encounters and confrontations with the other group members success is rendered possible such as Wertheimer understands it, and describes it in an example from "Some Problems in the Theory of Ethics":
"Further, there are experiences like the following. One knows a man who is an outstanding example of a certain caste, whose entire behaviour expresses very definitely the evaluations of his caste. And in a serious moment the outer shell falls away, and from behind this exterior there now comes out a simple, good, somewhat immature man, for whom the seemingly serious attitudes which he had exhibited are in fact like strange, superficial clothing. There seem to be layers in men, and it is a question of fact what the inner layers of men really are. Concerning our problem there are opposing theses. I would believe that the optimistic thesis is the right one, however difficult, indeed however impossible it may be at times to penetrate to this layer." (in Henle, p. 40).

Wertheimer's optimistic thesis is that people always have that layer which has preserved creative freedom in spite of the greatest external opposition and that it is a matter of penetrating to this layer. I see the danger that even the most progressive behaviour therapy, the social cognitive approach of the cognitive behaviour therapy in all its serious attempts, sometimes promotes a rigid "computing" (which PERLS also calls "mind-fucking") rather than freedom for creative self-determination. In his book "Schöpferische Freiheit" (Creative Freedom) METZGER quotes the swordmaster TAKUAN with the statement:
"There are two kinds of schooling one in final understanding and the other in method. The first, as already mentioned, aims to understand the ultimate significance of things for which actions are not limited by prescribed rules. There is only one meaning which goes its own innate way. However, mastery of the individual method is equally necessary. If you have no knowledge of this, you don't know how to approach your task" (1962, p.77, Author's translation).

I think it is not too daring to compare this duality with WERTHEIMERs. Here it is a question of investigating the conditions which promote freedom with scientific methods while taking into account that freedom is a Gestalt quality of character which, as a holistic phenomenon, will never be entirely accessible to rational analysis. Freedom can be hidden behind experiences, behind knowledge of contingencies, which is inaccessible but can become accessible when one is prepared to use knowledge of meaningful conditions (yes, certainly this is also knowledge of contingencies). According to this view there is no reason for Gestalt theorists to distance themselves from cognitive behaviour therapy. It can play its part in making more precise the rational and reasonable strategies of Gestalt theoretical psychotherapy. And at the same time Gestalt theory can offer cognitive behaviour therapy a wider framework in the sense of a more comprehensive view of man freed of disastrous limitations.

BANDURA, A. (1974). Behaviour theory and the models of man. American Psychol. 29 , 859-869.
BANDURA, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psych. Review, 84 , 191-215.
BANDURA, A. (1980). Self-referent thought: A developmental analysis of self-efficacy. Gestalt Theory 2 , 147-174.
HOETH, F. (1979). Variabilität und Konstanz als phänomenologische Kategorien. Gestalt Theory, 1 , 19-25.
METZGER, W. (1962). Schöpferische Freiheit. Frankfurt: Kramer.
METZGER, W. (1975). Gestalttheorie und Gruppendynamik. Gruppendynamik 6 , 311-331.
RAUSCH, E. (1949).Variabilität und Konstanz als phänomenologische Kategorien. Psychologische Forschung, 23 , 69-114.
WERTHEIMER, M. (1935/1961). Some problems in the theory of ethics. In M. HENLE (ed.), Documents of Gestalt Psychology (pp. 29-41). Berkeley: University of California Press.
WERTHEIMER, M. (1940/1961). A story of three days. In M. HENLE (ed.), Documents of Gestalt Psychology (pp. 52-66). Berkeley: University of California Press.
WERTHEIMER, M. (1945, German: 1964). Produktives Denken. Frankfurt: Kramer.


Humanistic Approach to Counselling

Humanistic counselling recognises the uniqueness of every individual.

It assumes that everyone has an innate capacity to grow emotionally and psychologically towards the goals of self-actualisation and personal fulfilment.

Humanistic counsellors work with the belief that problems are not caused by life events themselves, but how we experience them. Our experience, in turn, will affect and be affected by how we feel about ourselves, influencing self-esteem and confidence. The humanistic approach to counselling therefore encourages the client to learn to understand how negative responses to life events can lead to psychological discomfort. The approach aims for self-acceptance of both negative and positive aspects of our characters and personalities.

Humanistic counsellors therefore aim to help clients to explore their own thoughts and feelings and to work out their own solutions to their problems.

This is very similar to the approach used in coaching, except that coaches are more focused on the present, and less on the past. In essence, coaching aims to address the issue of &lsquohow&rsquo, and counselling looks at &lsquowhy&rsquo.

The American psychologist, Carl Rogers (1902-1987) developed one of the most commonly used humanistic therapies, client-centred counselling. This encourages the client to concentrate on how they feel at the present moment, this is also the essence of mindfulness.

Client-Centred Counselling

The central theme of client-centred counselling is the belief that we all have inherent resources that enable us to deal with whatever life brings.

Client-centred therapy focuses on the belief that the client—and not the counsellor—is the expert on their own thoughts, feelings, experiences and problems. The client is therefore the person most capable of finding appropriate solutions. The counsellor does not suggest any course of action, make recommendations, ask probing questions or try to interpret anything the client says. The responsibility for working out problems rests wholly with the client. When the counsellor does respond, their aim is to reflect and clarify what the client has been saying.

A trained client-centred counsellor aims to show empathy, warmth and genuineness, which they believe will enable the client's self-understanding and psychological growth.

Empathy involves being able to understand the client&rsquos issues from their own frame of reference. The counsellor should be able to accurately reflect this understanding back to the client. You may also be interested in our pages: What is Empathy? and Types of Empathy.

Warmth is to show the client that they are valued, regardless of anything that happens during the counselling session. The counsellor must be non-judgmental, accepting whatever the client says or does, without imposing evaluations.

Genuineness (sometimes termed congruence) refers to the counsellor's ability to be open and honest and not to act in a superior manner or hide behind a 'professional' facade. You may be interested in our page on Truthfulness.


Related Documents

The first is that it is unfair. Although the therapist is interpreting behavior maintained by the family, they adopt a linear epistemology temporarily. The therapist must pay close attention to the effect the techniques have on the system’s stress, especially with the low-power members who suddenly affiliate with the therapist. If the therapist sees a problem unfolding, they can end the experiment, find the distressed member and attend to their needs next, or spread hope that new solutions can be discovered through unbalancing. The other problem is the personal demands on the therapist.&hellip


What are the differences between Gestalt and behaviorism?

Behaviorism was founded by John B. Watson in the early part of the 20th Century. This was the earliest formulation of a coherent theory of learning, at least in modern Western society. A variety of perspectives emerged over the next few decades, including the work of Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, Hull, Skinner, and others.

From the behaviorist perspective, three assumptions are held to be true. First, the focus was on observable behavior rather than on internal cognitive processes. If learning has occurred, then some sort of observable external behavior is apparent. Second, the environment is the shaper of learning and behavior, not individual characteristics. Third, principles of contiguity and reinforcement are central to explaining the learning process.

The behaviorist orientation is fundamental to much current educational practice, including adult education. Skinner believed the ultimate goal of education was to train individuals to behaviors which would ensure their personal survival, as well as the survival of cultures and the species. The teacher's role, in this perspective, is to provide an environment that elicits the desired behaviors and extinguishes the undesirable ones.

Educational practices which have these notions at their core include systematic design of instruction, behavioral and performance objectives, programmed instruction, competency-based instruction, and instructor accountability. Training for skills and vocations is particularly heavily saturated with learning and being reinforced for "correct responses and behaviors."

Cognitive theories of learning are concerned with processes which occur inside the brain and nervous system as a person learns. They share the perspective that people actively process information and learning takes place through the efforts of the learner. Internal mental processes include inputing, organizing, storing, retrieving, and finding relationships between information. New information is linked to old knowledge, schema and scripts.

All the various cognitive approaches emphasise how information is processed. There were some very early efforts to organize cognitive theories in the late 1900's, but these were usurped by the behaviorist work being done at that time. It was not until the years after World War II that cognitive theories began to find their strength.

The Gestalt psychologistswere the first to challenge the behaviorist point of view. They criticized behaviorism for its reductionistic tendencies, and felt it was too dependent on external behaviors to explain learning. By the mid twentieth century, Gestalt theories and the work of Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka, and Lewin provided competition to behaviorism as the only accepted theory of learning.

Gestalt learning theories emphasized perception, insight, and meaning as the key elements of learning. The individual was seen as a perceptual organism, who organized, interpreted, and gave meaning to the events that impinged upon his consciousness. Making sense of events and phenomena was a driving concept. The learner makes sense of things by thinking about them. For Gestaltists, the individuality of the learner and his internal mental processes is paramount.

Jean Piaget was influenced by both the behaviorist and the Gestalt schools, and proposed that one's internal cognitive structures change as a result of developmental changes in the nervous system and as a result of being exposed to variety of experiences and the environments that contain them.

Contemporary research into cognitive learning theory focuses on information procession, memory, metacognition, theories of transfer, computer simulations, Artificial Intelligence, mathematical learning models, Ausubel, Bruner, and Gagne are all classified as contemporary cognitive theorists. Each of these theorists emphasized different aspects of cognitive functioning of the individual and group contexts.

Cognitive theories are quite diverse, but all are unified by the importance of the learner's internal mental processes. These three pioneering cognitive theorists, Bruner, Ausubel and Gagné also shared common ideas. They did not emphasize a developmental perspective, as much as Piaget did. These three theorists were ontemporaries, doing much of their work in the 1960's and 1970's. Even then, each was recognized as an authority in his field.

Although Ausubel, Bruner and Gagné each took different perspectives on learning, each has made significant contributions to the overall model of human learning. Ausubel considered the impact of prior learning and originated the tool called the "advanced organizer". The behaviourists did not consider the importance of prior learning.

Bruner's work on categorisation and concept formation provided models of how the learner derives information from the environment. Gagné looked at the events of learning and instruction as a series of phases, using the cognitive steps of coding, storing, retrieving and transferring information.

Humanistic theories shift the emphasis to the potential for individual growth in the learner. They bring the affective functioning of the human into the arena of learning.

Freud's psychoanalytic approach to behavior was a powerful influence on the humanistic learning theorists. Many of Freud's concepts, such as the subconscious mind, anxiety, repression, defense mechanisms, drives, and transference found their way into the humanistic learning theories.

The humanists rejected the notions of behaviorism that the environment determines learning. They favored the notion that human beings can control their own destiny, and that humans are inherently good and desire a better world for themselves and others. Behavior is a consequence of choice people are active agents in their own learning and lives, not helpless respondents to forces that act upon them. Motivation, choice, and responsibility are influences of learning. Life's experiences are the central arena for learning.

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are the two theorists who have contributed most to this perspective.

Social Learning Orientation

The focus of social learning theories is interactions between people as the primary mechanism of learning. Learning is based on observation of others in a social setting. Early social learning theories in the 1940's drew heavily from behaviorism, suggesting that imitative responses, when reinforced, let to the observed learning and behavioral changes.

Later, in the 1960's the work of Bandura broke away from the behaviorist views. He was the first to separate observation of another's behavior from the act of imitation. He postulated that an observer can learn by observing without having to imitate what is being learned.

Four processes form the cornerstones of observational learning theory. These are attention, retention (memory), behavioral rehearsal, and motivation. All four processes contribute to learning by observation.

Two other important proponents of social learning theory are Vygotsky and John Seely Brown.

Many useful concepts emerge from the social learning orientation, including motivational strategies, locus of control, social role acquisition, and the importance of interaction of learner with environment and other learners.


"Discuss The Similarities And Differences Between Gestalt Transactional Analysis Brief Therapy And Neurolingustic Programming" Essays and Research Papers

Gestalt Therapy PSYU-501 February 13, 2012 Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was founded by Frederick (Fritz) and Laura Perls in the 1940s. It instructs the client on the phenomenological method which is the theory that says behavior is determined by the way the person perceives reality rather than by objective external reality. This therapy method is an influential preference compared to the two chief therapeutic methods, psychoanalysis and behavioral therapy. This therapy combines the.

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The Similarities and Differences Between Client-Centered Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy

The similarities and differences between client-centered and psychodynamic therapies are: Client-centered therapy: An approach to counseling where the client determines the general direction of therapy, while the therapist seeks to increase the client's insightful self-understanding through informal simplified questions. The client is the focal point of the sessions, the therapist takes a "back seat" to learn about the person, and watch as the client moves toward the achievement of their full.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy is a therapeutic approach in psychology that helped foster the humanistic theories of the 1950s and 1960s and that was, in turn, influenced by them. In Gestalt philosophy, the patient is seen as having better insight into himself or herself than the therapist does. Thus, the therapist guides the person on a self-directed path to awareness and refrains from interpreting the patient’s behaviors. Awareness comprises recognition of one’s responsibility for choices, self-knowledge, and.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was largely developed by Fritz Perls and his wife, Laura. Together they created a theory that is based on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. To better understand that, one must review the key concepts, therapeutic process, and the techniques of application. The first key concept of Gestalt therapy is its view of human nature. Perls believed that genuine knowledge is the product of.

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Difference Between Solution-Focused Therapy And Narrative Therapy

Solution-focused therapy and narrative therapy are both utilized in counseling. They are both social construction models. They both serve a purpose in counseling, which is to help client’s change the way they think, not how they behave (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2013). Although solution-focused therapy and narrative therapy are social construction models, there are major differences between the two approaches. The first difference between the two approaches is that solution-focused therapy is question-oriented.

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Gestalt Therapy

Koffka (2013), enumerates that Gestalt is an arranged entity that is full and professed as having increased to a level that is beyond its total outcome. On the other hand, Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological existential notion that was introduced by Frederick and Laura Perls back then in the 1940s (Koffka, 2013). The purpose of the therapy is to enumerate to the user strategies of know-how based on assumptions, feeling and distinguished from interpreting preexisting outlooks. The purpose of the.

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Transactional analysis

Transactional Analysis The following is an introductory description of Transactional Analysis. It is designed to be understood by the layperson, written with approximately the same level of complexity that Berne used forGames People Play. Psychoanalysis before Eric Berne While there were many theories purporting to explain human behavior before HYPERLINK http//www.ericberne.com/eric_berne_biography/ o Biography of Eric Berne Eric Berne,the most frequently cited and known is the work of Sigmund Freud.

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Application Assignment: Gestalt Therapy

Week 2 Application Assignment: Gestalt Therapy 7.1 Defining the Core Constructs of Gestalt Therapy. When Helen reclaims her seat as Helen in the experiment, the therapist asks her to respond to her mother. What evidence do you see that would indicate that Helen has polarized thinking around her mother's expectations of her? Helen feel anger, pain, fear, or hurt but never show it, she internalize her pain and kept it inside. The therapist asks her to respond to her mother Sara, the anger.

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GESTALT THERAPY

Be familiar with the term Gestalt therapy uses for the present and how they deal with the past, present and future. Fredercik Perls was the originator of Gestalt Therapy. GT was created on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. The main cornerstones of this practice are awareness, choice, and responsibility. The main goal is to have clients expand their awareness of what they are experiencing in the present moment. With.


"Compare And Contrast Person Centred Therapy With Gestalt Therapy" Essays and Research Papers

This essay will compare and contrast the Person-Centred and Cognitive-Behavioural approaches to the understanding of and working with fear and sadness. It will do this by first summarising the basic theory of person centred Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and how each theory interprets the causation of fear and sadness. This essay will then use a short paragraph to discuss the relationships and therapeutic alliance within Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and person centred Therapy. This essay.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy is a therapeutic approach in psychology that helped foster the humanistic theories of the 1950s and 1960s and that was, in turn, influenced by them. In Gestalt philosophy, the patient is seen as having better insight into himself or herself than the therapist does. Thus, the therapist guides the person on a self-directed path to awareness and refrains from interpreting the patient’s behaviors. Awareness comprises recognition of one’s responsibility for choices, self-knowledge, and.

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Person-Centred Therapy

 Person- Centred Therapy The Person-Centred Approach developed from the work of the psychologist Dr. Carl Rogers. In 1940s to 1960s, Carl Rogers approach to therapy was considered revolutionary. His specialist knowledge didn’t come from a theory but rather from his clinical therapy. Consequently, theory came out of practice. Person-Centred Therapy was originally seen as non-directive. The reasoning for that was because Rogers didn’t.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy PSYU-501 February 13, 2012 Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was founded by Frederick (Fritz) and Laura Perls in the 1940s. It instructs the client on the phenomenological method which is the theory that says behavior is determined by the way the person perceives reality rather than by objective external reality. This therapy method is an influential preference compared to the two chief therapeutic methods, psychoanalysis and behavioral therapy. This therapy combines the.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was largely developed by Fritz Perls and his wife, Laura. Together they created a theory that is based on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. To better understand that, one must review the key concepts, therapeutic process, and the techniques of application. The first key concept of Gestalt therapy is its view of human nature. Perls believed that genuine knowledge is the product of.

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Anylise three types of therapies in counselling

types of therapy and outlined in this course. My essay compares and contrasts three theoretical models of counselling. For comparison and contrasting purposes, my work has identified three main theories, cognitive behavioural therapy, the person centred therapy, and gestalt therapy. CBT, person centred therapy, and gestalt therapies are three theoretical models that have been applied in psychotherapy for many years. Despite their similarities and use in counselling, the three therapies hold distinct.

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GESTALT THERAPY

Be familiar with the term Gestalt therapy uses for the present and how they deal with the past, present and future. Fredercik Perls was the originator of Gestalt Therapy. GT was created on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. The main cornerstones of this practice are awareness, choice, and responsibility. The main goal is to have clients expand their awareness of what they are experiencing in the present moment. With.

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Gestalt Therapy

Koffka (2013), enumerates that Gestalt is an arranged entity that is full and professed as having increased to a level that is beyond its total outcome. On the other hand, Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological existential notion that was introduced by Frederick and Laura Perls back then in the 1940s (Koffka, 2013). The purpose of the therapy is to enumerate to the user strategies of know-how based on assumptions, feeling and distinguished from interpreting preexisting outlooks. The purpose of the.

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Contrast and Compare Cbt and Existential Therapy

Contrast and compare CBT and Existential therapy Cognitive-behavioural therapy or CBT is representative of the integration of behavioural therapy and cognitive therapy. It encourages the empowerment of an individual to be able to change how they think (cognitive) and how awareness of particular problematic patterns may impact upon our consequent responses (behaviour) (R ch7). Pivotal to our understanding of such mental health problems from a CBT perspective is Beck’s ‘Cognitive theory of emotion’.

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Compare and contrast the main principles in psychoanalysis therapy and behavior therapy.

Essay title: Compare and contrast the main principles in psychoanalysis therapy and behavior therapy. Introduction: In generally, the majority of people are experienced in any condition of anxiety and depression as part of their life. Good mental health is defined as a person whose ability to satisfy in any condition as well as sustain his/her brain’s health in good relationships to others. (Grohol, 2008) However, Kendra Cherry (2010) educator also indicated that social contact must be needed.

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Effectiveness of Gestalt and Cognitive-behavioural Play Therapy in Decreasing Dythymic Disorder ☆

This study aimed to investigate the comparative effectiveness of the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies in decreasing the dythymic disorder of the 4th -grade female students studying in elementary schools located in the 7th educational district during the scholastic year of 2011-2012 in Mashhad, Iran. To this end, two schools from the list of the schools in the 7th district of the educational organization were selected by random cluster sampling. After conducting Child Symptoms Inventory (CSI-4), teacher form, 18 students were chosen and appointed randomly in 2 experimental and 1 control groups. Two experimental groups were treated in groups by the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies during 10 thirty-minute sessions. Having finished the therapy sessions, Child Symptoms Inventory (CSI-4), teacher form, as a post-test was administrated for 3 experimental and control groups .The obtained data were analyzed by the use of covariance. The results showed that the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies were influential in decreasing diagnosis scores (F=31/12, P<0/01) and intensity scores (F=37/25, P<0/01) regarding dythymic disorder. Due to the aim of this research, which was to compare the effectiveness of the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies, using LSD test showed the same effectiveness of the two therapy approaches in decreasing the dythymic disorder.


Gestalt psychology: the principles of perception

The word "Gestalt" is German for "shape" which is why this German school of psychology that studies human perception bears this name. At the same time, the word perception means knowledge or a feeling inside that occurs when we receive certain information via the senses. This has to do with the shapes or mental structures that we perceive our external reality through.

To go into further detail, Gestalt psychology studies the organization of these shapes or mental structures that lead to the way that we perceive things. Perception psychology is a school of thought created in the early 20th century by German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Kofka.

Among other things, these founding fathers suggested that perception is the first step that the mind takes when a person experiences something an idea that went against everything that the psychophysiology field stood for at that point in time, when people believed that the sensorial experience came first, followed by mental activity.

According to these creators, mental tasks such as learning, thought, and memory, would be impossible without perception. And to explain how the mind configures the information that we receive, these psychologists proposed a series of principles know as the Gestalt laws.


What are the differences between Gestalt and behaviorism?

Behaviorism was founded by John B. Watson in the early part of the 20th Century. This was the earliest formulation of a coherent theory of learning, at least in modern Western society. A variety of perspectives emerged over the next few decades, including the work of Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, Hull, Skinner, and others.

From the behaviorist perspective, three assumptions are held to be true. First, the focus was on observable behavior rather than on internal cognitive processes. If learning has occurred, then some sort of observable external behavior is apparent. Second, the environment is the shaper of learning and behavior, not individual characteristics. Third, principles of contiguity and reinforcement are central to explaining the learning process.

The behaviorist orientation is fundamental to much current educational practice, including adult education. Skinner believed the ultimate goal of education was to train individuals to behaviors which would ensure their personal survival, as well as the survival of cultures and the species. The teacher's role, in this perspective, is to provide an environment that elicits the desired behaviors and extinguishes the undesirable ones.

Educational practices which have these notions at their core include systematic design of instruction, behavioral and performance objectives, programmed instruction, competency-based instruction, and instructor accountability. Training for skills and vocations is particularly heavily saturated with learning and being reinforced for "correct responses and behaviors."

Cognitive theories of learning are concerned with processes which occur inside the brain and nervous system as a person learns. They share the perspective that people actively process information and learning takes place through the efforts of the learner. Internal mental processes include inputing, organizing, storing, retrieving, and finding relationships between information. New information is linked to old knowledge, schema and scripts.

All the various cognitive approaches emphasise how information is processed. There were some very early efforts to organize cognitive theories in the late 1900's, but these were usurped by the behaviorist work being done at that time. It was not until the years after World War II that cognitive theories began to find their strength.

The Gestalt psychologistswere the first to challenge the behaviorist point of view. They criticized behaviorism for its reductionistic tendencies, and felt it was too dependent on external behaviors to explain learning. By the mid twentieth century, Gestalt theories and the work of Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka, and Lewin provided competition to behaviorism as the only accepted theory of learning.

Gestalt learning theories emphasized perception, insight, and meaning as the key elements of learning. The individual was seen as a perceptual organism, who organized, interpreted, and gave meaning to the events that impinged upon his consciousness. Making sense of events and phenomena was a driving concept. The learner makes sense of things by thinking about them. For Gestaltists, the individuality of the learner and his internal mental processes is paramount.

Jean Piaget was influenced by both the behaviorist and the Gestalt schools, and proposed that one's internal cognitive structures change as a result of developmental changes in the nervous system and as a result of being exposed to variety of experiences and the environments that contain them.

Contemporary research into cognitive learning theory focuses on information procession, memory, metacognition, theories of transfer, computer simulations, Artificial Intelligence, mathematical learning models, Ausubel, Bruner, and Gagne are all classified as contemporary cognitive theorists. Each of these theorists emphasized different aspects of cognitive functioning of the individual and group contexts.

Cognitive theories are quite diverse, but all are unified by the importance of the learner's internal mental processes. These three pioneering cognitive theorists, Bruner, Ausubel and Gagné also shared common ideas. They did not emphasize a developmental perspective, as much as Piaget did. These three theorists were ontemporaries, doing much of their work in the 1960's and 1970's. Even then, each was recognized as an authority in his field.

Although Ausubel, Bruner and Gagné each took different perspectives on learning, each has made significant contributions to the overall model of human learning. Ausubel considered the impact of prior learning and originated the tool called the "advanced organizer". The behaviourists did not consider the importance of prior learning.

Bruner's work on categorisation and concept formation provided models of how the learner derives information from the environment. Gagné looked at the events of learning and instruction as a series of phases, using the cognitive steps of coding, storing, retrieving and transferring information.

Humanistic theories shift the emphasis to the potential for individual growth in the learner. They bring the affective functioning of the human into the arena of learning.

Freud's psychoanalytic approach to behavior was a powerful influence on the humanistic learning theorists. Many of Freud's concepts, such as the subconscious mind, anxiety, repression, defense mechanisms, drives, and transference found their way into the humanistic learning theories.

The humanists rejected the notions of behaviorism that the environment determines learning. They favored the notion that human beings can control their own destiny, and that humans are inherently good and desire a better world for themselves and others. Behavior is a consequence of choice people are active agents in their own learning and lives, not helpless respondents to forces that act upon them. Motivation, choice, and responsibility are influences of learning. Life's experiences are the central arena for learning.

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are the two theorists who have contributed most to this perspective.

Social Learning Orientation

The focus of social learning theories is interactions between people as the primary mechanism of learning. Learning is based on observation of others in a social setting. Early social learning theories in the 1940's drew heavily from behaviorism, suggesting that imitative responses, when reinforced, let to the observed learning and behavioral changes.

Later, in the 1960's the work of Bandura broke away from the behaviorist views. He was the first to separate observation of another's behavior from the act of imitation. He postulated that an observer can learn by observing without having to imitate what is being learned.

Four processes form the cornerstones of observational learning theory. These are attention, retention (memory), behavioral rehearsal, and motivation. All four processes contribute to learning by observation.

Two other important proponents of social learning theory are Vygotsky and John Seely Brown.

Many useful concepts emerge from the social learning orientation, including motivational strategies, locus of control, social role acquisition, and the importance of interaction of learner with environment and other learners.


"Compare And Contrast Person Centred Therapy With Gestalt Therapy" Essays and Research Papers

This essay will compare and contrast the Person-Centred and Cognitive-Behavioural approaches to the understanding of and working with fear and sadness. It will do this by first summarising the basic theory of person centred Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and how each theory interprets the causation of fear and sadness. This essay will then use a short paragraph to discuss the relationships and therapeutic alliance within Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and person centred Therapy. This essay.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy is a therapeutic approach in psychology that helped foster the humanistic theories of the 1950s and 1960s and that was, in turn, influenced by them. In Gestalt philosophy, the patient is seen as having better insight into himself or herself than the therapist does. Thus, the therapist guides the person on a self-directed path to awareness and refrains from interpreting the patient’s behaviors. Awareness comprises recognition of one’s responsibility for choices, self-knowledge, and.

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Person-Centred Therapy

 Person- Centred Therapy The Person-Centred Approach developed from the work of the psychologist Dr. Carl Rogers. In 1940s to 1960s, Carl Rogers approach to therapy was considered revolutionary. His specialist knowledge didn’t come from a theory but rather from his clinical therapy. Consequently, theory came out of practice. Person-Centred Therapy was originally seen as non-directive. The reasoning for that was because Rogers didn’t.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy PSYU-501 February 13, 2012 Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was founded by Frederick (Fritz) and Laura Perls in the 1940s. It instructs the client on the phenomenological method which is the theory that says behavior is determined by the way the person perceives reality rather than by objective external reality. This therapy method is an influential preference compared to the two chief therapeutic methods, psychoanalysis and behavioral therapy. This therapy combines the.

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was largely developed by Fritz Perls and his wife, Laura. Together they created a theory that is based on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. To better understand that, one must review the key concepts, therapeutic process, and the techniques of application. The first key concept of Gestalt therapy is its view of human nature. Perls believed that genuine knowledge is the product of.

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Anylise three types of therapies in counselling

types of therapy and outlined in this course. My essay compares and contrasts three theoretical models of counselling. For comparison and contrasting purposes, my work has identified three main theories, cognitive behavioural therapy, the person centred therapy, and gestalt therapy. CBT, person centred therapy, and gestalt therapies are three theoretical models that have been applied in psychotherapy for many years. Despite their similarities and use in counselling, the three therapies hold distinct.

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GESTALT THERAPY

Be familiar with the term Gestalt therapy uses for the present and how they deal with the past, present and future. Fredercik Perls was the originator of Gestalt Therapy. GT was created on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. The main cornerstones of this practice are awareness, choice, and responsibility. The main goal is to have clients expand their awareness of what they are experiencing in the present moment. With.

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Gestalt Therapy

Koffka (2013), enumerates that Gestalt is an arranged entity that is full and professed as having increased to a level that is beyond its total outcome. On the other hand, Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological existential notion that was introduced by Frederick and Laura Perls back then in the 1940s (Koffka, 2013). The purpose of the therapy is to enumerate to the user strategies of know-how based on assumptions, feeling and distinguished from interpreting preexisting outlooks. The purpose of the.

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Contrast and Compare Cbt and Existential Therapy

Contrast and compare CBT and Existential therapy Cognitive-behavioural therapy or CBT is representative of the integration of behavioural therapy and cognitive therapy. It encourages the empowerment of an individual to be able to change how they think (cognitive) and how awareness of particular problematic patterns may impact upon our consequent responses (behaviour) (R ch7). Pivotal to our understanding of such mental health problems from a CBT perspective is Beck’s ‘Cognitive theory of emotion’.

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Compare and contrast the main principles in psychoanalysis therapy and behavior therapy.

Essay title: Compare and contrast the main principles in psychoanalysis therapy and behavior therapy. Introduction: In generally, the majority of people are experienced in any condition of anxiety and depression as part of their life. Good mental health is defined as a person whose ability to satisfy in any condition as well as sustain his/her brain’s health in good relationships to others. (Grohol, 2008) However, Kendra Cherry (2010) educator also indicated that social contact must be needed.

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Gestalt psychology: the principles of perception

The word "Gestalt" is German for "shape" which is why this German school of psychology that studies human perception bears this name. At the same time, the word perception means knowledge or a feeling inside that occurs when we receive certain information via the senses. This has to do with the shapes or mental structures that we perceive our external reality through.

To go into further detail, Gestalt psychology studies the organization of these shapes or mental structures that lead to the way that we perceive things. Perception psychology is a school of thought created in the early 20th century by German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Kofka.

Among other things, these founding fathers suggested that perception is the first step that the mind takes when a person experiences something an idea that went against everything that the psychophysiology field stood for at that point in time, when people believed that the sensorial experience came first, followed by mental activity.

According to these creators, mental tasks such as learning, thought, and memory, would be impossible without perception. And to explain how the mind configures the information that we receive, these psychologists proposed a series of principles know as the Gestalt laws.


Humanistic Approach to Counselling

Humanistic counselling recognises the uniqueness of every individual.

It assumes that everyone has an innate capacity to grow emotionally and psychologically towards the goals of self-actualisation and personal fulfilment.

Humanistic counsellors work with the belief that problems are not caused by life events themselves, but how we experience them. Our experience, in turn, will affect and be affected by how we feel about ourselves, influencing self-esteem and confidence. The humanistic approach to counselling therefore encourages the client to learn to understand how negative responses to life events can lead to psychological discomfort. The approach aims for self-acceptance of both negative and positive aspects of our characters and personalities.

Humanistic counsellors therefore aim to help clients to explore their own thoughts and feelings and to work out their own solutions to their problems.

This is very similar to the approach used in coaching, except that coaches are more focused on the present, and less on the past. In essence, coaching aims to address the issue of &lsquohow&rsquo, and counselling looks at &lsquowhy&rsquo.

The American psychologist, Carl Rogers (1902-1987) developed one of the most commonly used humanistic therapies, client-centred counselling. This encourages the client to concentrate on how they feel at the present moment, this is also the essence of mindfulness.

Client-Centred Counselling

The central theme of client-centred counselling is the belief that we all have inherent resources that enable us to deal with whatever life brings.

Client-centred therapy focuses on the belief that the client—and not the counsellor—is the expert on their own thoughts, feelings, experiences and problems. The client is therefore the person most capable of finding appropriate solutions. The counsellor does not suggest any course of action, make recommendations, ask probing questions or try to interpret anything the client says. The responsibility for working out problems rests wholly with the client. When the counsellor does respond, their aim is to reflect and clarify what the client has been saying.

A trained client-centred counsellor aims to show empathy, warmth and genuineness, which they believe will enable the client's self-understanding and psychological growth.

Empathy involves being able to understand the client&rsquos issues from their own frame of reference. The counsellor should be able to accurately reflect this understanding back to the client. You may also be interested in our pages: What is Empathy? and Types of Empathy.

Warmth is to show the client that they are valued, regardless of anything that happens during the counselling session. The counsellor must be non-judgmental, accepting whatever the client says or does, without imposing evaluations.

Genuineness (sometimes termed congruence) refers to the counsellor's ability to be open and honest and not to act in a superior manner or hide behind a 'professional' facade. You may be interested in our page on Truthfulness.


What are the main differences between gestalt therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy? - Psychology

Familiarity with cognitive behaviour therapy, particularly the social cognitive approach, is widely assumed here. My paper is a part of a more comprehensive treatment of this theme in which my sister, Irene PAULS, wrote large parts of the section dealing with cognitive behaviour therapy.

It is undeniable that even today there are behaviour therapists who pay homage to the atomistic and associational view which Gestalt theorists have opposed since the beginning of the century. But the social-cognitive approach, as it is known today, justifies the following question: Is there anything left for Gestalt Theory to criticize? Does the cognitive behaviour therapy, particularly the social cognitive approach as represented by MISCHEL, BANDURA and MAHONEY, still have anything in common with WATSONs behaviour therapy? I think at most only a little. It has become possible to speak of awareness, insight, setting aims, self-observation, anticipation, self-direction and self-control. Many of these concepts are in harmony with LEWINs concept of life-space. Anyway, the concept of conditioning has been radically demystified by the realization that conditioning does not happen automatically but is cognitively mediated (BANDURA, 1974). Analogously to the Gestalt laws (proximity, closure, etc.), "conditioning" merely describes certain possible connections (e.g. stimulus-response associations) which may be realized by an individual, depending on his/her subjective phenomenal world (life space). Rather, self-determination is regarded a basic condition of human existence which cannot be denied. In general, this can be agreed upon, the problems concerning self-determination can be simply illustrated by the following example: If a vicar speaks of politics in his church then he's being political - if he does not bring in politics then he's still being political.

WERTHEIMER, as a founder of Gestalt theory, would probably not feel misunderstood by BANDURAs statement: "The task ahead is to explore in greater detail how self-knowledge of efficacy is acquired and how it in turn shapes the course of personal development" (BANDURA, 1980, p. 171). BANDURAs and WERTHEIMERs ideas and concepts concerning self-determination must be carefully compared in order to be able to decide if they have a relatively similar understanding of this subject, thus enabling them to pursue similar lines of research.

WERTHEIMER analyses the problem of self-determinations particularly impressively in an essay on the subject of "freedom" published in 1940 (in ANSHEN, 1940, new published in HENLE, 1961). In "A Story of Three Days" he describes a "good man's" attempt to find out what freedom means. The "good man" is disappointed in his hope of finding a solution to his problem through conversations with a sociologist and a philosopher and by reading the works of a famous author and a psychoanalyst. Each time he ends up feeling that he has, in fact, learnt nothing about freedom in spite of the famous people's clever ideas. And then - alone with himself again - he bursts out. "First let me realize," he said passionately, "what I have seen with my own eyes. Have I not seen in my experience strong and indeed very characteristic cases of men, of children, who were free, who were unfree? What were the essentials? My experiences, of course, are no sufficient basis for statistical generalizations nor do I wish to make any now. What I want is to grasp, to realize, what I have seen." He recalled a number of cases. Then he said, "Sometimes one sees a man, and by the way he goes through life, by his attitudes, by his behaviour in dealing with life situations one feels: this is a free man, he lives in an atmosphere of freedom. And so in observing children. On the other hand, one sees men or children, and feels strongly that in their behaviour there is no freedom - there is no air of freedom in their world."

"It is," he thought, "not easy to put into words what one faces so vividly in these extreme cases. Let me think - what were these cases concretely? The free man," he recalled, "- frank, open-minded, sincerely going ahead, facing the situation freely, looking for the right thing to do and so finding where to go. The opposite - he first thought of children he had often seen - inhibited, pushed, or driven, acting by command or intimidation, one-track minded. "

The man concludes that everything that had been written and said to him concerning freedom by these clever people was a product of piecemeal thinking which sees it
". in terms of a choice, of a wish, of an `instinctual impulsion , etc. One's whole attitude towards the world, towards the other fellow, towards one's group, towards one' s own momentary wishes was involved." . "He recalled discussions. What differences! In the way a man faces a counterargument, faces new facts! There are men who face them freely, open-mindedly, frankly, dealing honestly with them, taking them duly into account. 0thers are noat able to do so at all: they somehow remain blind, rigid they stick to their axioms, unable to face the arguments, the facts or, if they do, it is to avoid or to get rid of them by some means - they are incapable of looking then squarely in the face. They cannot deal with them as free men they are narrowed and enslaved by their position" (in HENLE, pp. 59-61).

In his work "Some Problems in the Theory of Ethics" (1935, new published in HENLE, 1961) WERTHEIMER points out that logical operations can be illogical in the context of a situation, simply because they do not fulfil the demands of the situation. In the previously described example, it could be a case of a fascinating firework display of logical and knowledgeable trains of thought which, as a whole, completely miss the point. The man sums it up thus:
"Freedom is (1) a condition in the social field, and a terribly important one. In viewing such, a condition we should not view it as a thing in itself and so define it, but we should view it in its role, in its function, in its interactions, in its consequences for men and for society. Freedom is logically (2) not just a condition what matters is how men are and how they develop, how society is and how it develops. Freedom is a Gestalt quality of attitude, of behaviour, of a man's thinking, of his actions. (Think of the difference between the free and the unfree, the description of which was of course only a first approach to viewing the essentials.) Now logically freedom as condition (1) and freedom as Gestalt quality (2) must be viewed not as two pieces, but in their intimate interrelation. Freedom as condition is only one factor, but a very important one with regard to freedom as character quality" (in HENLE, p. 64).

It does not seem to be a coincidence that none of the words WERTHEIMER uses to describe freedom begin with "self". He would probably see the distinction between external determination and self-determination as an expression of a piecemeal view. He would, on the other hand, agree with the view that the free man is able to determine himself, because the feeling of freedom allows him to confront situations without reservations. I would really like to give up the concept of self-determination in Gestalt-theoretical psychotherapy and, together with METZGER (1962), and also based on WERTHEIMERs point of view, see the main concern of Gestalt-theoretical pedagogy and also of Gestalt-theoretical psychotherapy in the promotion of "creative freedom". We can only find out what promotes it, we can promote it, but we cannot find out how to create it - this character quality of "creative freedom" out of which the appropriate self-determination grows. To what extent could a person who is unfree in the sense of character quality benefit from his awareness of, his insight into and his anticipation of contingencies? Of what use is his logic? lt would be the logic of an unfree person, the activity of an unfree person. WERTHEIMER speaks of the atmosphere of freedom emitted by a free person which can be felt, the air of freedom which the unfree person lacks. Only the encounter with an air or an atmosphere of freedom can liberate him. To be brought into a social field where the air of freedom can be breathed in - as the "good man" in WERTHEIMERs story has already experienced - can seem to someone as though he had suddenly recovered after a long illness. The language of WERTHEIMERs "A Story of Three Days" is full of feeling, contains many images and is therefore very different from most texts of cognitive behaviour therapy it seems to me that this is already an indication of a difference between the Gestalt-theoretical approach to self-determination and that of cognitive behaviour therapy. Let us assure ourselves again. In cognitive behaviour therapy we are concerned with knowledge of, awareness of and information about behaviour contingencies. Logical operations constitute self-determination. Clarification is what counts. What has been logically clarified is the basis of further clarification by means of logical operations. I think the tradition of an atomistic "summative" approach can be felt here. lt is, of course, pointed out that emotions also determine thinking, but it seems to me that the step of seeing a person's thinking, feeling, actions, perceptions, attitudes and logical operations as an indivisible unity, as a holistic phenomenon, as a Gestalt quality has not quite been taken. Where lies the logic when, on the one hand, cognition is seen as being influenced by emotions and, on the other hand such "emotional cognitions" are reduced to logical operations as a kind of intellectual strategy? If, (as WERTHEIMER let his "good man" express pointedly), empirical inquiry into the conditions for the development of freedom is only useful when conducted by a free man, then the rationalistic reduction of self-determination to a logical handling of knowledge of contingencies is unsuitable for this task, because this one-sidedness avoids the confrontation with the Gestalt character of the person as a whole. Furthermore, if in cognitive behaviour therapy the conscious mind, defined as knowledge of interconnections which can be verbally recalled, is the foundation of self-determination, then such a rationalistic view ignores the unconscious in consciousness. In this concept of self-determination man is reduced to a "logical doer". For Gestalt theory, however, the unconscious in consciousness is no less a source of self-determination than the conscious mind, the inaccessible no less than the accessible, the ground no less than the distinguishable figure, the functionally bound (which evades attention because only a particular problem or particular aim is centered on) no less than that which is seen, the visual constant (which I would not think of questioning) no less than the visual variable in whose transformation I anticipate success (RAUSCH, 1949 HOETH, 1979), and finally, to sum up, the properties of individual parts (perhaps also conditions for a person's freedom), their relationship to each other, their role in the whole no less than the Gestalt quality of the whole (perhaps also the free personality). All pieces of information which cannot be reproduced verbally are not "inevitably lost" as maintained by the client-centered therapist WEXLER in his "Cognitive Theory of Experiencing, Self-actualisation and Therapeutic Process" (1974).

But can Gestalt theory offer a way to make the inaccessible accessible? Surely it is only meaningful then to insist on its existence? A holistic view, one could say, is fine, but is it not just vague rubbish if this leads to the claim that the inaccessible is the source of free behaviour, the source of self-determination? I would like to answer this. The impatience expressed by a "doer mentality" such as WATSONs shows its persistency perhaps not only in the fact that Gestalt theorists are asked the wrong questions but also that Gestalt theorists may give the wrong answers. That which is inaccessible cannot be made accessible, it can however become accessible. The "good man" in WERTHEIMERs story named crucial conditions which enable this to take place: a free, open and unprejudiced acceptance of that which is. WERTHEIMER speaks of the "demands of the situation" and maintains that intelligence is the capacity to let oneself be led by the situation (1945, in German 1964). For WERTHEIMER truly creative achievements are unthinkable without this process of accepting and letting oneself be led by one's situation. This characterizes the scientific research method of Gestalt Theory no less than it does Gestalt-theoretical Psychotherapy. METZGER (1975) describes the method of inquiry used in Gestalt theory as "movement from top to bottom". In order for logical operations to take place within a meaningful framework, the researcher is not afraid to ascribe scientific worth to his first intuitions as he approaches the object of his inquiry. To go into these intuitions - however unclear their appearances in the object of inquiry - increases the chance that the matter at hand, the situation itself takes charge rather than preconceived assumptions. In research as in therapy, logical operations are only used with a specific purpose when the Gestalt relationship between researcher and the aim of his research, between therapist and client, between client and his aim has been clarified adequately. There is no guarantee that this is practised. What can be done is to set up adequate conditions (such as "the path from top to bottom") which increase the chances that old rigidities are not strengthened by illogical logic. In therapy, for example, we are concerned with allowing confusion and the lack of clarity. It is not a matter of supporting confusion and the lack of clarity as aims, but merely of allowing them. Acceptance of that which is, allowing the confusion which is present, is necessary in order to develop a clarity which is not entirely primitive ("primitiv-prägnant"). Creative freedom (cp. Metzger, 1962), creative self-determination takes shape in letting go of that which has been done long ago, that which is known or claimed to exist. Perls is, at least in this point, a real Gestalt theorist, to him awareness means directing his attention fully to the present experience, listening inside himself, remaining in the flow of consciousness, not investing activity in logical inquiries too early, but simply being there, following whatever happens, whatever pushes itself into the foreground in this way, perhaps for the first time in ages becoming aware of elemental needs for peace, security, affection and pleasure, for making an effort and achieving something. Acceptance of the present situation (of which Lewin says that it is the only place where change can take place) is something, I am convinced, hardly anyone masters. lt is much more usual to juggle hypotheses, assumptions and suspicions about the past and future, to worship second-hand ideas, and thus to neglect our connection with the present most crassly. Experiences in Gestalt-theoretical Psychotherapy (which can include the use of Gestalt therapy exercises and procedures as well as those from psychodrama, client centered therapy and even behaviour therapy), has, in my opinion, demonstrated adequately that by creating adequate conditions which encourage a person to be concerned with himself, his current situation and encounters and confrontations with the other group members success is rendered possible such as Wertheimer understands it, and describes it in an example from "Some Problems in the Theory of Ethics":
"Further, there are experiences like the following. One knows a man who is an outstanding example of a certain caste, whose entire behaviour expresses very definitely the evaluations of his caste. And in a serious moment the outer shell falls away, and from behind this exterior there now comes out a simple, good, somewhat immature man, for whom the seemingly serious attitudes which he had exhibited are in fact like strange, superficial clothing. There seem to be layers in men, and it is a question of fact what the inner layers of men really are. Concerning our problem there are opposing theses. I would believe that the optimistic thesis is the right one, however difficult, indeed however impossible it may be at times to penetrate to this layer." (in Henle, p. 40).

Wertheimer's optimistic thesis is that people always have that layer which has preserved creative freedom in spite of the greatest external opposition and that it is a matter of penetrating to this layer. I see the danger that even the most progressive behaviour therapy, the social cognitive approach of the cognitive behaviour therapy in all its serious attempts, sometimes promotes a rigid "computing" (which PERLS also calls "mind-fucking") rather than freedom for creative self-determination. In his book "Schöpferische Freiheit" (Creative Freedom) METZGER quotes the swordmaster TAKUAN with the statement:
"There are two kinds of schooling one in final understanding and the other in method. The first, as already mentioned, aims to understand the ultimate significance of things for which actions are not limited by prescribed rules. There is only one meaning which goes its own innate way. However, mastery of the individual method is equally necessary. If you have no knowledge of this, you don't know how to approach your task" (1962, p.77, Author's translation).

I think it is not too daring to compare this duality with WERTHEIMERs. Here it is a question of investigating the conditions which promote freedom with scientific methods while taking into account that freedom is a Gestalt quality of character which, as a holistic phenomenon, will never be entirely accessible to rational analysis. Freedom can be hidden behind experiences, behind knowledge of contingencies, which is inaccessible but can become accessible when one is prepared to use knowledge of meaningful conditions (yes, certainly this is also knowledge of contingencies). According to this view there is no reason for Gestalt theorists to distance themselves from cognitive behaviour therapy. It can play its part in making more precise the rational and reasonable strategies of Gestalt theoretical psychotherapy. And at the same time Gestalt theory can offer cognitive behaviour therapy a wider framework in the sense of a more comprehensive view of man freed of disastrous limitations.

BANDURA, A. (1974). Behaviour theory and the models of man. American Psychol. 29 , 859-869.
BANDURA, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psych. Review, 84 , 191-215.
BANDURA, A. (1980). Self-referent thought: A developmental analysis of self-efficacy. Gestalt Theory 2 , 147-174.
HOETH, F. (1979). Variabilität und Konstanz als phänomenologische Kategorien. Gestalt Theory, 1 , 19-25.
METZGER, W. (1962). Schöpferische Freiheit. Frankfurt: Kramer.
METZGER, W. (1975). Gestalttheorie und Gruppendynamik. Gruppendynamik 6 , 311-331.
RAUSCH, E. (1949).Variabilität und Konstanz als phänomenologische Kategorien. Psychologische Forschung, 23 , 69-114.
WERTHEIMER, M. (1935/1961). Some problems in the theory of ethics. In M. HENLE (ed.), Documents of Gestalt Psychology (pp. 29-41). Berkeley: University of California Press.
WERTHEIMER, M. (1940/1961). A story of three days. In M. HENLE (ed.), Documents of Gestalt Psychology (pp. 52-66). Berkeley: University of California Press.
WERTHEIMER, M. (1945, German: 1964). Produktives Denken. Frankfurt: Kramer.


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In Conclusion

There are many ways to work with a therapist. You can find practitioners of Gestalt Therapy and other modalities on BetterHelp. If you're feeling depressed, anxious, or generally need support, talking to a therapist can help you get things back on track. You can move forward to a truly fulfilling life-all you need are the right tools. Take the first step.

Frequently Asked Questions About Gestalt Therapy Techniques

What is the main goal of Gestalt Therapy?

The goal of Gestalt Therapy is to overcome how you feel about the past and future. You want to focus on the present and experience the current moment. Additionally, you will want to focus on your current feelings about the past and take responsibility for them. You should be able to take how you are feeling now and manage those feelings. Furthermore, the goal is to alleviate any unresolved emotions, heartache, anxiety, or stress about a past situation.

How does Gestalt Therapy work?

Gestalt Therapy is a client-centered form of therapy in which the client focuses on the now. The therapist will direct you to think about your current feelings, rather than the past. This is to refocus the mind to be on the present moment, so you don&rsquot harp on past incidents. These incidents are usually what triggers stress, anxiety, or depression. So, focusing on the present can be seen as very effective when trying to heal mentally.

What are the key concepts of Gestalt Therapy?

According to the Gestalt Theory website, the key concepts are phenomenological exploration (awareness and insight), field theory perspective (the event needed to happen to affect the future), existentialism (acknowledgment of how the world works), and dialogue (perspectives of relationships). Overall, the main gist of Gestalt Therapy is the focus on gaining a deeper understanding of situations. It is to gain insight into why things happen and how to approach the experiences.

When would you use Gestalt Therapy?

You can use Gestalt Therapy for a wide variety of reasons. Any uncomfortable feelings toward the past or present is a great reason to see a Gestalt therapist. Also, if you just want to feel more whole or aware, it is an excellent form of client-centered therapy.

Who is Gestalt Therapy effective for?

If you have an anxiety disorder, depression, or relationship issues, Gestalt Therapy can be very effective. Additionally, it is effective for resolving stress, headaches, and even trauma. No matter what you are dealing with, you may benefit from attending Gestalt Therapy.

What techniques do Gestalt therapists use?

Some Gestalt Therapy techniques are role-playing in which your therapist will help you reenact scenes or past experiences. Then, you will focus on how you are feeling in the present. Another, which is likely the most commonly known, is the empty chair technique. This is where the client speaks to the person they have a grievance toward. Third, is the exaggeration technique, which is where the therapist encourages their client to exaggerate their physical behaviors such as playing with their hair or tapping their fingers. This is to increase the self-awareness of the client.

What are Gestalt exercises?

Some Gestalt Therapy exercises are self-awareness methods, so you get more in touch with your emotions. When you are more aware of your reactions and coping mechanisms, you are likely to heal more effectively. Another exercise is the empty chair technique, also known as the void chair. Additionally, many therapists prefer to do role-play with their clients, so the client can heal from the previous situation. This is to encourage healing and process their emotions.

What is the Gestalt empty chair technique?

The empty chair technique, as mentioned above, is a technique in which you have a conversation with an empty chair. You pretend to converse with someone who has caused you stress, pain, or anxiety. This is to air out how you feel toward them, all without doing so in reality. This is a very effective method as you are likely to feel better once you explain your pain and emotions.

What is Gestalt explained simply?

Gestalt Therapy, explained simply, is a therapy method in which a therapist leads a client to feel more whole and complete. It is to bring all of the pieces together from pain, the past situation, the future, and the emotions felt by the client. The goal is for the client to feel whole in the present moment, rather than focusing on the past or future.

What is the basic goal of Gestalt Therapy?

The basic goal of Gestalt Therapy is to heal from the past of anxiety about the future. When you wrap up Gestalt Therapy, you should feel comfortable living in the present and feel a wholeness about your life. If you do struggle with anxiety or depression, the hope is that you can heal from those feelings and are able to cope with the negative emotions.

What is the difference between Gestalt Therapy and Existential Therapy?

Gestalt Therapy is a type of Existential Therapy, but there are some differences. GT typically focuses on feeling whole, while existential therapy focuses on being authentic. Existential therapists tend to believe the meaning of life is coming to terms that it will end, so you must live in the present. Gestalt therapy focuses on being in the present and not focusing on the past or future.

Is Gestalt Therapy evidence based?

Gestalt Therapy is evidence based. There have been hundreds of studies over Gestalt Therapy, and it is an effective form of therapy. However, for some mental health conditions, such as generalized anxiety, other therapy methods are proven to be more effective, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To see if you would have success with GT, see a counselor, and discuss your symptoms. They will be able to tell you if GT will be effective for your specific situation.


Effectiveness of Gestalt and Cognitive-behavioural Play Therapy in Decreasing Dythymic Disorder ☆

This study aimed to investigate the comparative effectiveness of the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies in decreasing the dythymic disorder of the 4th -grade female students studying in elementary schools located in the 7th educational district during the scholastic year of 2011-2012 in Mashhad, Iran. To this end, two schools from the list of the schools in the 7th district of the educational organization were selected by random cluster sampling. After conducting Child Symptoms Inventory (CSI-4), teacher form, 18 students were chosen and appointed randomly in 2 experimental and 1 control groups. Two experimental groups were treated in groups by the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies during 10 thirty-minute sessions. Having finished the therapy sessions, Child Symptoms Inventory (CSI-4), teacher form, as a post-test was administrated for 3 experimental and control groups .The obtained data were analyzed by the use of covariance. The results showed that the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies were influential in decreasing diagnosis scores (F=31/12, P<0/01) and intensity scores (F=37/25, P<0/01) regarding dythymic disorder. Due to the aim of this research, which was to compare the effectiveness of the gestalt and cognitive- behavioural play therapies, using LSD test showed the same effectiveness of the two therapy approaches in decreasing the dythymic disorder.


"Discuss The Similarities And Differences Between Gestalt Transactional Analysis Brief Therapy And Neurolingustic Programming" Essays and Research Papers

Gestalt Therapy PSYU-501 February 13, 2012 Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was founded by Frederick (Fritz) and Laura Perls in the 1940s. It instructs the client on the phenomenological method which is the theory that says behavior is determined by the way the person perceives reality rather than by objective external reality. This therapy method is an influential preference compared to the two chief therapeutic methods, psychoanalysis and behavioral therapy. This therapy combines the.

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The Similarities and Differences Between Client-Centered Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy

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Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy is a therapeutic approach in psychology that helped foster the humanistic theories of the 1950s and 1960s and that was, in turn, influenced by them. In Gestalt philosophy, the patient is seen as having better insight into himself or herself than the therapist does. Thus, the therapist guides the person on a self-directed path to awareness and refrains from interpreting the patient’s behaviors. Awareness comprises recognition of one’s responsibility for choices, self-knowledge, and.

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Gestalt Therapy Gestalt therapy was largely developed by Fritz Perls and his wife, Laura. Together they created a theory that is based on the premise that individuals must be understood in the context of their ongoing relationship with the environment. To better understand that, one must review the key concepts, therapeutic process, and the techniques of application. The first key concept of Gestalt therapy is its view of human nature. Perls believed that genuine knowledge is the product of.

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Solution-focused therapy and narrative therapy are both utilized in counseling. They are both social construction models. They both serve a purpose in counseling, which is to help client’s change the way they think, not how they behave (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2013). Although solution-focused therapy and narrative therapy are social construction models, there are major differences between the two approaches. The first difference between the two approaches is that solution-focused therapy is question-oriented.

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Gestalt Therapy

Koffka (2013), enumerates that Gestalt is an arranged entity that is full and professed as having increased to a level that is beyond its total outcome. On the other hand, Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological existential notion that was introduced by Frederick and Laura Perls back then in the 1940s (Koffka, 2013). The purpose of the therapy is to enumerate to the user strategies of know-how based on assumptions, feeling and distinguished from interpreting preexisting outlooks. The purpose of the.

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Transactional Analysis The following is an introductory description of Transactional Analysis. It is designed to be understood by the layperson, written with approximately the same level of complexity that Berne used forGames People Play. Psychoanalysis before Eric Berne While there were many theories purporting to explain human behavior before HYPERLINK http//www.ericberne.com/eric_berne_biography/ o Biography of Eric Berne Eric Berne,the most frequently cited and known is the work of Sigmund Freud.

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Week 2 Application Assignment: Gestalt Therapy 7.1 Defining the Core Constructs of Gestalt Therapy. When Helen reclaims her seat as Helen in the experiment, the therapist asks her to respond to her mother. What evidence do you see that would indicate that Helen has polarized thinking around her mother's expectations of her? Helen feel anger, pain, fear, or hurt but never show it, she internalize her pain and kept it inside. The therapist asks her to respond to her mother Sara, the anger.

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Counselling Theories Compared and Contrasted

In this section, we are going to look at three different forms of counselling, how they compare and how they differ.

The first thing to consider is that all counsellors, no matter which model of counselling they practise, should offer the core conditions discussed in the section on person-centred therapy.

The main difference is that transactional analysis and REBT counsellors use additional techniques, whereas person-centred therapists believe that the core conditions are not only necessary but also sufficient for the client to heal themselves.

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Compare and Contrast Theories

In the grid below, you will see how the therapies compare

Person-centred Transactional analysis REBT
Carl Rogers Eric Berne Albert Ellis
Humanistic school Psychodynamic school Behavioural school
Here and now Presenting past How we think
Counsellor believes the client is an expert on themselves and helps the client gain self-acceptance Counsellor is an ‘expert’ and helps the client to realise how childhood experiences affect their life today Counsellor is an ‘expert’ and helps the client to think more rationally about life
Believes that humans can self-heal if the core conditions are in place The basis of the model is pa rent, adult and child ego states The basis of the model is a ct ion , belief and consequence
Core conditions are
necessary and sufficient
Core conditions are desirable Core conditions are desirable
The relationship between the client and the counsellor is the most important aspect of the therapy succeeding Counsellor teaches techniques, sets homework and uses worksheets to aid the therapy Counsellor teaches techniques, sets homework and uses worksheets to aid the therapy


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